How to Create a Table of Contents in Indesign [Solved]

How to Create a Table of Contents in Indesign

Adobe Indesign LogoFor many years, I made the tables of contents for my books manually. I would finish the book and then, one by one, I would open the file for each chapter and write down the name of the chapter, the name of the A Heads, and the page numbers for each. It averaged 200 entries for each book’s table of contents (TOC). It was a tedious process, but manageable.

Thankfully, Adobe has since added an automatic TOC feature to InDesign. Its dialog box is a little confusing, but by following the tips in this article, you’ll master it in no time.

Benefits of the Automatic TOC 
There are several benefits to using InDesign’s TOC command:

• InDesign doesn’t make typos. Humans, on the other hand, can easily enter an incorrect page number or entry.

• If anyone makes changes to your documents (a new chapter name or additional pages, for instance), it only takes one click from you to update the TOC.

• When you export a PDF from the document, the page numbers in the TOC are hyperlinked to the actual pages in the document. If you want to go to chapter three, you just click on the page number in the TOC.

• When you create a style for a TOC in the InDesign document, that TOC can be added to an ePub.

Preparing the Document for a TOC
You need a page or two in your document that will hold the TOC. Using the Pages panel, insert those pages (sometimes called front matter) in the front of the book. Then select the page where the TOC will start and choose Numbering & Section Options from the Pages panel menu. In the resulting dialog’s drop-down Style menu (Figure 1), choose the appropriate numeral style (in my case, that’s Roman).

Figure 1. The Numbering & Section Options allow you to set the front matter where a TOC is located to Roman numerals.

Select the page where the main text starts and choose Numbering & Section Options again. Set this to restart at page 1 (Figure 2); that way you can add pages for the front matter without changing the numbers of my main document. I also changed the style to Arabic numerals (Figure 3).

Figure 2. Use the Numbering & Section Options to reset the main document back to page 1 and Arabic numbers.Figure 3. An example of how the front matter of a document is numbered with Roman numerals while the main body is set with Arabic numbers.Understanding the TOC Dialog
While the Table of Contents dialog is complicated, you can figure it out with a little exploration.

To begin creating the actual TOC, go to Layout > Table of Contents. This opens the Table of Contents dialog box (Figure 4).

Figure 4. The Table of Contents dialog box at its default settings.Setting the Title of the TOC
When you first open the TOC dialog box, the Title field default is “Contents.” I change it to the phrase “In this chapter” to describe the TOC entries I have at the front of each chapter in my Visual QuickStart guides. You can insert any word or phrase that makes sense for your book (Figure 5). If you don’t want any description, delete the default entry. It’s very important that you make this — and all subsequent TOC changes — in the TOC dialog box. Any manual modifications you make can cause errors in the automatically generated TOC.

Figure 5 . Fill in the Title field with whatever description you want to head up the TOC.Setting the Style for the Title
Once you have entered a title for the TOC, you need to format it. Move to the right side of the dialog box and click the Style menu to see a list of paragraph styles in your document (Figure 6).

Figure 6. The Style menu for the Title field of the TOC.

Apply the style for the title. If you haven’t created a style in advance, you can use the New Paragraph Style command at the bottom of the list to create a new style without leaving the TOC dialog box.

Choosing the Entries for the TOC
The entries for each line of your TOC come from the lines of text that have been styled with a certain paragraph style. No paragraph style = no TOC entry. For instance, if you want InDesign to automatically list the pages on which each chapter begins, you must apply a paragraph style to the chapter title, chapter number, or some other paragraph at the start of the chapter. For my books, I tell InDesign’s automatic TOC builder to look for two paragraph styles: one that’s applied to the name of each chapter, and another that’s applied to the A heads (main subsections) of each chapter.

To add paragraph styles as entries in the TOC, simply click the name of the style under Other Styles and then click the Add button (Figure 7). The style appears under Include Paragraph Styles. This indicates that the style will be used as an entry in the TOC.

Figure 7. Click the Add button to move a paragraph style from the Other Styles list to the Include Paragraph Styles. This adds the text formatted with this style to the TOC.

As you click each entry, it appears indented in the Include Paragraph Styles list. Ignore the indents, which are only used under a very esoteric situation that I’ll explore later.

Formatting the Entries
Now that you have the entries listed for the TOC, you need to format them with a paragraph style. Confused? I don’t blame you. You’re choosing the text formatted with a specific paragraph style to be inserted in the TOC, but that text still must have a paragraph style applied to it (Figure 8).

Figure 8. Use the paragraph style list to format entries in the TOC.

The paragraph style for the TOC entry does not need to match the original paragraph style applied to the text in the main part of document. The paragraph style I use for TOC entries is different than the styles I use in running text; for example, the B head in the running text is 14 points, and the B head TOC entries are 10 points. For the sake of clarity, I name the paragraph style within the document as “B head” and the style for the TOC as “B head TOC”.

Viewing all the Setting
Still in the TOC dialog, click the “More Options” button to see all the available controls (Figures 9 and 10).

Figure 9. The abbreviated controls for formatting a TOC.Figure 10. The complete options available for formatting a TOC.Page Number Location
Use the Page Number dropdown menu to choose where the page number should appear in relation to the entry: After Entry or Before (Figure 11). You can also choose to omit a page number for the entry, which is helpful if you want to create a list of all illustration captions or photographers in the book, but don’t want to list the pages on which they appear.

Figure 11. Use the Page Number menu to choose where the page number should be located or if you should have a page number at all.Styling the Page Number
Once you’ve set a location for the page number, you set a character style for the number (Figure 12). This makes it possible to style the number with a color, italic text, or some other indicator.

Figure 12. Use the Style list to the right of the Page Number menu to apply a character style to the page number.Separating the Entry and Page Number
TOCs need a divider to separate an entry from its page number. The default is a tab character, written as ^t. You can use the drop-down menu to choose a special character, such as an em dash, forced line break, and so on (Figure 13). My favorite is to change the tab to a right indent tab (^y). This forces the page number all the way to the right side of the margin.

Figure 13. The special characters you can insert between the entry and the page number.

Understand, though, that adding a character between the entry and the number does not create a tab leader. The tab leader comes from the tab created as part of the paragraph style applied to the entry.

You’re not limited to the items in the special character dropdown menu: You can insert your own! Say you want a colon after each entry. You simply insert the colon before the tab character so the field reads “:^t”. This adds the colon after the entry. You can also get fancy with the entry between the entry and the page number and type text, such as “On Page”.

Styling the Separator
Just as you can apply a character style to the page number, you can also apply a character style to the separator between the entry and the page number. This isn’t important if your separator is invisible, such as a tab or space. But if a tab leader is part of the paragraph style, you may want to apply a character style that makes the leading periods smaller (Figure 14).

Figure 14. Use the Style list to apply a character style to the separator between the entry and the page number.Looking at the Levels
Perhaps the most misunderstood section of the TOC dialog box is the setting for Levels. When you add each paragraph style to the Include Paragraph Style, it’s indented from the previous entry (Figure 15). That’s because the levels are automatically set to indent the next style.

Figure 15. The indents for entries automatically appear as each paragraph style is added to the list.

However, except in two very specific circumstances, the levels are there solely for display in the dialog box. They don’t affect anything in an ordinary TOC. You can leave the entries indented or you can change them using the Levels control (Figure 16).

Figure 16. Use the Levels control to set the indents for each entry.

Levels don’t do anything to the actual TOC unless the entries are sorted alphabetically (see the next section). In that case, the entries are sorted by alphabetically within each level. Levels are also used when the TOC style is applied as part of an export to ePub.

Sorting Entries
Most of the time, you want TOC entries to appear in the same order they appear in the document: by page number. However, some TOCs don’t need page numbers, such as those that list all the photographers or illustrations in a document. In these cases, you might want the entries to be listed alphabetically. That’s where the Sort Entries in Alphabetical Order comes in (Figure 17).

Figure 17. Use Sort Entries in Alphabetical Order to list the items in the TOC in alphabetical order.Apply the Settings for Each Entry
This may seem like a lot of work, and you’re not done yet: You must repeat it for each paragraph style in the document text that you want to show up as a TOC entry. This is probably the most common mistake made in creating a TOC: You set up all the options for one entry, but forget to set it for the others.

Go back to the Include Paragraph Styles area, select a new style, and set all the options (Figure 18).

Figure 18. Each entry in the TOC needs to be set by the Style options. Here the options for the B head have been set.Setting the Options
The Options settings (Figure 19) are pretty straightforward.

Figure 19. The Options area for the TOC dialog box.Create PDF Bookmarks creates the bookmark navigational aids in the exported PDF.

Replace Existing Table of Contents allows you to make changes to an existing TOC.

Include Book Documents is available only when the book that contains the open document is open. This setting is important if you want to create a TOC for all the documents in a book.

Run-in puts all the entries in a single paragraph. Each entry is separated by a semicolon and a space.

Include Text on Hidden Layers includes entries from layers that are hidden in the Layers panel. The benefit of this setting is you can include items such as advertisers or photographers that you don’t want to appear in the main body of the document.

Working with Numbered Paragraphs
There’s a slight twist to working with numbered paragraphs. Most people don’t want those paragraph numbers in a TOC. The Numbered Paragraph drop-down menu lets you tell InDesign how to treat them (Figure 20).

Figure 20. Use the Numbered Paragraphs menu to control how numbered paragraphs are handled.Include Full Paragraph uses both the number and the text for the paragraph.

Include Numbers Only uses just the number for the paragraph.

Exclude Numbers drops the numbers from the TOC and includes just the text for the paragraph.

Saving as a TOC Style
You can save all these settings you’ve been slaving over by clicking the Save Style button. This opens a dialog box where you can name the style so all these settings are maintained in the document. Then you choose that TOC style when you create a new TOC for the document (Figure 21).

Figure 21. A saved TOC style appears in the TOC Style list.

If you save a TOC style for your document, you have the option when exporting as an ePub to use that TOC Style to create a TOC for the ePub. You don’t have to create a TOC for the document. You just need a TOC style.

The Big Payoff: Automatic Updating 
After all this work, you need a big benefit. If you (or anyone else) has made any changes to the main body of your work — text, page numbers, order of items, or paragraph and character styles — simply put your insertion point in the text frame that holds the TOC and choose Layout > Update Table of Contents. The text updates automatically.


How to Raise Image Resolution Directly using Indesign [Solved]

How to Raise Image Resolution Directly using Indesign

InDesign CC splashIt is sometimes difficult for users to foresee image resolution and dimensions they will need while they are laying out an InDesign document, and it is particularly difficult to set the images’ output resolution to 300 ppi during the layout process. Very often, some images, due to numerous scalings up and down during the layout, have an effective resolution of less than 300 ppi, and that resolution is passed through to the print-ready PDF–a quality that you usually accept. However, when the PDF is received by the prepress operator of a newspaper or a magazine, it is typically checked in a preflight tool such as Enfocus PitStop or Adobe Acrobat Pro — which will warn that the resolution of some images is not 300 ppi! The result:  the operator too-often sends the PDF back to its creator.

So, how to fix the resolution without opening each image in Photoshop, especially when there are dozens or even hundreds of images involved? Very simple… just force InDesign to raise the resolution to 300 ppi! Here’s how to do it.

1. In Photoshop, create a document with the following specifications:

Create a new Photoshop file

  • The dimensions must be the same as the InDesign document. Also pay respect to the orientation of the InDesign document. If it is oriented in Portrait mode, do the same in the Photoshop file.
  • Set the Resolution to 300 ppi.
  • Set the Color Mode to CMYK.
  • In Background Contents, fill the Photoshop file with a white background. In fact the type of file, the fact that it is flattened or layered does not matter at all.

2. Save the file. It can be a JPEG, but do not include any ICC profile. Name the document something like “White Background.jpg”.

3. In your InDesign document, it is important that the images and the texts are wisely distributed among layers. All the images should have been placed on the “Images” layer, and all the texts should have been placed on the “Text” layer. I recommend that the “Text” layer is placed above the images, and more specifically above all the other objects using transparency options (opacity of less than 100%, blending mode, effects,etc) otherwise the flattening engine will sandwich the texts and raster/outline them.

4. Jump to a master page that has an influence on all the other document or master pages.

5. Create a layer called something like “Resolution” that you will position above the “Images” layer but beneath the “Texts” layer!

6. On that master page and on that layer, import the “White Background.jpg” file so it covers the whole InDesign document. If the document has been created with a master page having an influence on all the other master pages, all the images of the document will now suddenly be hidden. If some images are still visible, this means that some master pages are independent. Thus place the “White Background.jpg” on each master page so none images are visible.

7. Using the Selection Tool (Black Arrow), select the graphic frame that contains the “White Background.jpg” and change its blending mode to “Multiply” in the Effects panel. Now all the document’s pages display properly again. What you have done here is placed a 300 ppi transparent object which covers the whole document. When the transparency flattener will blend the images, it will use the resolution of the highest image file in the pile and will blend all the images at its resolution — thus 300 ppi.

8. For example, in the image below, I have placed a 72 ppi screenshot just under the “White Background.jpg” graphic frame. This screenshot is slightly scaled down so its resolution is increased up to 90 ppi.

The places screenshot

9. Export the InDesign document as a PDF (or create a PostScript file that you will place into the Distiller) and choose the PDF-X/1a:2001 preset or any other method that invokes the transparency flattener (the Acrobat 4, PDF 1.3 format).

10. Open the resulting PDF in Adobe Acrobat Pro. Choose Advanced > Print Production > Preflight. Among the three little squares on top of the palette, select the one in the middle “Select Single Checks”. In the list of presets, select the one in the Images section named Resolution of color and grayscale images is greater than 250 ppi.

Acrobat Preflight Step 1

11. Select and double-click this preset or click the “Analyze” button in the lower right corner: you’ll notice that Acrobat displays a warning.

12. Click on the little gray arrow next to the red cross to reveal the list of images and you will notice that they all have a resolution of 300 ppi.

Acrobat Preflight step 2

There appear to be a lot of images because the transparency flattener has created a jigsaw-puzzle of flattened and contiguous images that have no influence on the texts and vector shapes above.

Note #1: if you want to increase the resolution from 300 ppi up to 450 ppi, just open the “White Background.jpg” file in Photoshop and increase its resolution to 450 ppi (Image menu > Image Size). Save the file, go back to InDesign and update the link. Re-export and enjoy this trick!

Note #2: To scale images, InDesign uses the legendary Bicubic Interpolation Algorithm that has been present in Adobe software for years. We can thus expect a very good resampling quality. Remember: this trick is only really intended to fool the preflight tools when you’re too lazy to adjust the effective/output resolution of each image in Photoshop.

Note #3: If you are working in a unflattened workflow (Acrobat 5 – PDF 1.4 or higher), the flattening of transparency will be executed by an Adobe Certified RIP or manually via the “Control Flattener Setting” on the Preflight panel (in Acrobat).

Note #4: Zevrix’s Link Optimizer for InDesign is a fantastic utility to control the output resolution of images in InDesign document (and other image formatting changes).


How to Set Indents in Adobe Indesign [Solved]

How to Set Indents in Adobe Indesign

Adobe Indesign LogoIndents are helpful for aligning columnar text and will move text in from the left or right margins. Use first-line indents, not tabs or spaces, to indent the first line of a paragraph.

First-line indent

  • Paragraph panel first line indentIndent the first line of each paragraph using the Paragraph palette, Control palette or Tabs palette.
  • Highlight the text with the Type tool.
  • Paragraph palette:
    • Type the amount of the indent in the First Line Indent InDesign-First line indent field.
    • Press Enter/Return.
    • For example, to indent 1 pica, type 1p
  • Control palette:
    • Click on the Paragraph icon InDesign-Paragraph symbol(left side)
    • Type the amount of the indent in the First Line Indent InDesign-First line indent field.
    • Press Enter/Return.
    • For example, to indent 1 pica, type 1p.

Control palette first line indent

  • Tabs palette:
    • Select Tabs from the Type menu (Windows: Ctrl + Shift + T, Mac: Command + Shift + T).
    • Drag the top marker Tabs palette symbol (left side) to the right the amount needed, or
    • Select the top marker and type a number in the X field.

InDesign-Indent first line tabs palette

Indent entire paragraph

  • Indent a paragraph using the Paragraph palette, Control palette or Tabs palette.
  • Highlight the text with the Type tool.
  • Paragraph palette:
    • To indent to the left, type the amount of the indent in the Left Indent InDesign-Indent left field.
    • To indent to the right, type the amount of the indent in the Right Indent InDesign-Indent right field.
    • Press Enter/Return.
  • Control palette:
    • To indent to the left, type the amount of the indent in the Left Indent InDesign-Indent left field.
    • To indent to the right, type the amount of the indent in the Right Indent InDesign-Right indent field.
    • Press Enter/Return.
  • Tabs palette:
    • Select Tabs from the Type menu (Windows: Ctrl + Shift + T, Mac: Command + Shift + T).
    • Drag the bottom marker (left side) to the right the amount needed, or
    • Select the bottom marker and type a number in the X field.

Hanging indent

  • Create a hanging indent using the Paragraph palette, Control palette or Tabs palette.
  • Highlight the text with the Type tool.
  • Paragraph Palette:
    • Type a positive amount in the Left Indent field and a negative amount in the First Line Indent field.
    • Press Enter/Return.
    • For example, use 1p for the Left Indent amount and -1 for the First Line Indent amount.
  • InDesign-Hanging indent - control paletteControl palette:
    • Type a positive amount in the Left Indent field and a negative amount in the First Line Indent field.
    • Press Enter/Return.
    • For example, use 1p for the Left Indent amount and -1 for the First Line Indent amount.
  • Tabs palette:
    • Select Tabs from the Type menu (Windows: Ctrl + Shift + T, Mac: Command + Shift + T).
    • Hold down the Shift key and drag the bottom marker to the right.

InDesign-Tabs palette hanging indent


How to Set Up a New Publication using InDesign [Solved]

How to Set Up a New Publication using InDesign

Adobe Indesign LogoAfter you launch InDesign CS2 (the “CS” stands for Creative Suite), you have two options: You can choose File –> Open (or press Command+O or Ctrl+O) to open a previously created document or template, or you can choose File –> New –> Document (or press Command+N or Ctrl+N) to create a new document.

Creating a new document is where all the fun is, since you get to create something yourself, from scratch. Here’s how to create a new document:

1. Choose File –> New –> Document or press Command+N or Ctrl+N.

The New Document dialog box appears. It is here that you will have to make many up-front decisions about how you want your new document set up — including page size, number of pages, number of columns, and margin width. Although you’re free to change your mind later, you’ll save yourself time and potential headaches by sticking with the basic page parameters you establish in the New Document dialog box.

2. If you know exactly how many pages your publication will have, enter the number in the Number of Pages field.

If you don’t know for sure, you can always add or delete pages later. So for now, make an educated guess; it’s easy to add or delete pages later.

3. Decide whether to layout your documents in a spread or as separate pages.

• If you’re creating a multi-page publication that will have a spine, such as a book, catalog, or magazine, select Facing Pages.

• If you’re creating a one-page document, such as a business card, an ad, or a poster, don’t select Facing Pages.

• Some publications, such as flip charts, presentations, and three-ring bound documents, have multiple pages but use only one side of the page. For such documents, don’t check Facing Pages, either.

4. If you want to flow text from page to page in a multi-page document, such as a book or a catalog, check Master Text Frame.

If you check this box, InDesign automatically adds a text frame to the document’s master page and to all document pages based on this master page. Doing this saves you the work of creating a text frame on each page and manually threading text through each frame.

5. In the Page Size area, you can choose one of the predefined sizes from the pop-up menu.

6. Specify margin values in the Margins area.

If Facing Pages is checked, Inside and Outside fields are available in the Margins area. Designers often specify larger inside margins for multi-page publications to accommodate the fold at the spine. If Facing Pages is not checked, Left and Right fields replace the Inside and Outside fields. You can also specify margin values by clicking the up/down arrows associated with the fields.

7. To specify how many columns your pages have, enter a value in the Columns field.

You can also specify the number of columns by clicking the up/down arrows associated with the Column field.

8. Specify a gutter distance (the gutter is the space between columns) in the Gutter field.

You can also specify a gutter width value by clicking the up/down arrows associated with the Gutter field.

9. Click the More Options button to access the Bleed and Slug area of the New Document dialog box.

The More Options button provides options to set bleed and slug areas. A bleed area is a margin on the outside of the page for objects you want to extend past the edge of the page — you want them to extend at least 1/8 inch so if there is any shifting of the paper during printing, there’s no white space where the image should be (touching the edge of the page).

The slug area is an area reserved for printing crop marks, color plate names, and other such printing information — some output devices will cut these off during printing unless a slug area is defined. For both bleed and slug areas, you can set the top, bottom, left, and right margins independently.

10. Click OK to close the New Document dialog box.

Your new, blank document appears in a new document window.

You can bypass the New Document dialog box by pressing Shift+Command+N or Ctrl+Shift+N. When you use this method, the most recent settings in the New Document dialog box are used for the new document.


How to get page numbering to start where you want it in InDesign [Solved]

How to get page numbering to start where you want it in InDesign

Adobe Indesign LogoWhen you use the A-Master and add auto-page numbering, InDesign counts each page from the very start of the document.

If you have a cover at the start of your document, you may have one or more pages where you do not want the pages numbers to appear. Since the page numbers don’t appear on these pages, you probably don’t want them counted in the page numbering sequence either.

This tutorial will show you how to adjust your page numbers so you can have them starting where you want.


Above is my document before I made this tutorial. You can see that I have a cover page with no page number on it, but the actual numbering starts with number “2″ on page 2.

What I want is for the page numbering to start on page 2, but instead of saying “2″, I want it to say “1″.


Note: suggest you do this process only once you are happy with the final layout of your document, as it does require you to turn off shuffling of pages.

1. In your pages panel, double-click on the page icon where you want to start your numbering. In this example, I want to choose page 2, and have the actual page number say “1” on the page. Page 2 is selected in blue below:

2. The Pages palette has a menu you can access from the button on the top right of the panel. This gives you more options. Uncheck the option Allow document pages to shuffle.

3. Click on the Pages palette menu button again. Choose Numbering and Section Options…:

4. Select Start page numbering at and set the number in the box to be “1”. This will work with either a left- or right-side page (i.e. you can make an “even” left-side page into page 1. Nifty!

5. You may see a warning screen appear. It’s simply telling you that some of your pages will have identical page numbers. We will fix this later. For now, just click OK.

6. Your page numbers should have automatically renumbered.

7. If you want to remove page numbers from any of the pages in your document you have two choices:

  • Apply a different master page which doesn’t contain any page numbering, such as the master called “None”. To do this, select the page you want to apply the different master page to, and click the Pages palette menu button. Choose “Apply master to pages…” and then choose the master page you want to use instead of A-Master.